Characteristics and Description of Sabudana

Varieties , Size & Colour of Tapioca Sago:

Currently, in 2014, There are two varieties popular in India. First, Common Sabudana, which is Roasted and dried and Second, Nylon Sabudana, which is steam boiled and dried.

Roasted (Common Sabudana) is manufactured in three sizes as

(1) between 1mm to 1.5 mm dia (locally known as Motidana and popularly used in Eastern part of India),
(2) between 2 mm to 2.5 mm dia (it is international standard size and locally known as ‘Khirdana’), and
(3) between 3 mm to 4 mm dia (the common popular size all over India, locally called ‘Badadana’).

Boiled (Nylon Sabudana) is also manufactured in three sizes as

(1) of 2 mm dia (locally known as ‘Chinidana’ or ‘Smaller Ceylon nylon’),

(2) of 3 mm dia (popularly called as ‘Ceylon Nylon”), and

(3) between 5 to 7 mm dia (which is called locally as ‘Glass Nylon’)

Roasted variety is soaking more water than Boiled Variety, whereas, if frying, Boiled variety becomes more larger in expansion than Roasted Sabudana.

Similarly, Boiled Sabudana variety has more transparency in appearance, whereas Roasted Variety has no transparency. Colour of the two varieties are also different, as Boiled variety becomes glowing transparent creamer-yellow colour, whereas Roasted variety retains the original natural white colour of cassava extract like Milk colour.

General Characteristics of Tapioca Sago

Tapioca Sago has various specialities as a food item,among which the following are quiet significant:

1. It is very easy to cook.

2. The taste is very delicious.

3. Even a novice cook can prepare varieties of Dishes.

4. It is easy to digest.

5. It is 100% vegetarian and made from pure extract of Tapioca root (a vegetable crop), even anyone can take on auspicious or fast days.

6. Sick persons can take for immediate recovery.

7. Harmless, easy-digestive, Very good food for children.

Sabudana Manufacturing Centres in India

Major Manufacturing Centres in India:

Salem (Tamilnadu):

In India, in around 1943-44, Sago production was started first in Salem (Tamilnadu) on a cottage scale basis by crushing & pulping the tapioca roots, filtering the milk-extract and after settling the milk, forming globules and roasting these globules. Till that time, cassava was used for direct food as cooked tubers. After 1945 only industry developed its indigenous machineries locally and start marketing its products all over India. Before that period, Sago was an imported item in India and consumption was in very limited quantity (only for sick persons or for infants as were prescribed by Doctors).

Currently, in Tamilnadu alone, cassava is being cultivated over an area of about 82000 hectares providing employment for thousands of workers over fields and in 800 processing units. In Salem District alone, 34000 hectares of land is under cassava cultivation and there are 650 units engaged in tapioca processing.

There is volatility in yearly production of Tapioca Sago-Starch in the region. In 2001-02 At The Sagoserve, there was Total Turnover of Sago-Starch of 24.41 lakh bags valued Rs. 20470.37 lakh, where as in 2012-13 the total Turnover of Sago-Starch was of only 12.92 lakh bags for total value of Rs. 35448.04.
source: )

Samalkot (Andhra Pradesh):

In Andhra Pradesh, Sago manufacturing was started first in Samalkot, East Godavari region in 1966. Up to, 1980 sago manufacturers were completely dependant on Calcutta market, as till that time they brought their product for sale on commission basis through Calcutta Agents only. First Sago factory was started in 1949-50 and number of sago factories in the area went up to 53 in 80s. Gradually it has come down and currently in the year 2014, there are only 20 factories are running.After 1980, they started to follow Salem industry and started to sell their products in other states through agents.

Total Area (in Hectares) of Land under Cassava Cultivation was about 60000 acres in 2013-14 and about 70000 acres in current year i.e. 2014-15.

There is no any authentic data available for sago-starch manufactured in and marketed from Andhra Pradesh. Currently, in 2014, there are only 20 mills are running.

Value-appreciation of Sabudana in India

Now a days, Marketing is global and there is no barrier, but traditionally, Merchants of Salem (Tamilnadu) has helped a lot to develop the current credit of Indian Sabudana all over the world.

The author, who is related since more than 40 years to the trade and industry of Sabudana in Salem, himself devoted his life to the trade and industry. In 1981-82, he has supported the formation of a co-operative society (The Sagoserve) for betterment of trade and industry and helped in formation of Bye-laws of the society and marketing of society-member’s products to all over India. In 1984-85, he initiated to get AGMARK certification of Sabudana (first in the country). Similarly first, he has launched best quality Indian Sabudana in consumer packs (Sachamoti AGMARK Sabudana) directly from the manufacturing centre and created a big goodwill for the brand as well for Indian Sabudana itself. In 1993, he was introduced Indian Sabudana to UAE directly from the manufacturing centre, perhaps, first in bulk quantity. In 1997, he created a ‘Sabu Visual and Oral Sago Testing Form (SAVOSA)’ in the interest of consumer awareness, which is even, relevant today. In 1999, to develop and exchange the knowledge across the Globe, Specifically about Sago and relatively Starch,Tapioca and Other tapioca products, he launched a Website ‘, again first in India, in Sago-Starch Field. He has organised many ‘sago-recipe-contests’ all over the country to develop taste, knowledge & fame of ‘Indian Sabudana’ in consumers. Since, 1984 he is publishing ‘sabudana-recipes-booklet’ and distributing free to his consumers to create interest in the product.

In India, Major Consuming States of Sabudana (Tapioca Sago) are Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Gujarat and Andhra-Pradesh. Consumption in Other States are low. Even in Tamilnadu (Main Producing Centre), the consumption is only about 2 to 3% of total Sabudana Production. Uses of Sabudana in our country is completely as a food, especially on the days of fasting (vrat-upawas) i.e. Navratri, Srawan, Ekadashi, Purnima or in Ramzan Period, as is rich in complex carbohydrate and digesting slowly, thus no feelings of empty stomach. There are many recipes are in use, in which popular recipes are Khichadi, Vada, Bonda, Kheer, Halwa etc. Some families are preparing home-food items like Khichia, papad, chakali etc. by boiling Sabudana , especially in Gujarat.

To develop Sabudana in India, tremendous work has been done by following agencies:

1. Central Food Technological Research Institute(CFTRI), Mysore (A constituent laboratory of Council of Scientific and Industrial research, New Delhi) is doing regular researches since 1950 for development of various uses and easiness in manufacturing-process. It is working under Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. For more information, you can visit their website at .

2. The Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI) a constituent Institute under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the only research organization in the World dedicated solely to the research on tropical tuber crops. It has done tremendous work since 1963 for development and protection of Cassava (Tubers of Tapioca) in India. The Institute Scientists have won national and international recognition in the past. You can visit their website for more information at .

3. “Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers’ Service Industrial Co-operative Society Ltd.” Salem (Popularly known as “Sagoserve”) formed in 1981 by the sago/starch manufacturers under the Tamil Nadu Co-operative Society Act 1961 under the leadership of founder chairman Late Shri A. Angamuthu. He has done very hard and a noble-memorable work for the trade and industry by joining all the sectors at one platform. It was commenced its business on 27.02.1982. This society is functioning under the administrative control of the Director of Industries and Commerce, Govt. of Tamilnadu. Due to successive efforts of the society, sago/starch units have now become the backbone of Salem District’s Rural Economy.

Purchases of Sago/Starch from “Sagoserve” are exempted from CST for inter-state sales and Concessional TNGST rate of 1% for purchase of sago and starch through the society (5% ST payable for purchase outside the society). This is an incentive offered by the state Government to promote co-operative movement. Due to concessional rate of salestax, currently, about 30 to 40% sago-starch production of the belt is arriving at The Sagoserve for marketing.

Currently, in 2014, Shri B. Arulmurugan is the Chairman of The Board of Directors and Smt. V. Santha, IAS is managing Director of The Sagoserve. They are trying hard to remove hurdles specifically in the growth of The Sagoserve and commonly for whole sago/starch trade and industry. Previously, mentionable developments and growth has been achieved in the period of following managing directors: Shri N. Natarajan B.Com (Founder Managing Director), Shri Hansraj Varma, IAS, Shri Vishwanath Shengaonkar, IAS, Shri Sandeep Saxena, IAS, Shri S.K.Prabhakar, IAS, Shri K. Ashokvardhan Shetty, IAS, Shri Harmander Singh, IAS, and Shri K.K.Kaushal, IAS.

Since 1982, Highest sales of Sago/starch through the sagoserve was achieved unitwise in 2001-2002 (24.41 lakh bags / Rs.20470.37 lakh) and valuewise in 2013-14 till feb 14 only (for 9.54 lakh bags / Rs. 43818.06 lakh). These are the remarkable achievements in the history of Sago in India. For More information about The Sagoserve, you can visit their website at .

Standards for Sabudana (Sago, Tapioca Sago)

Food Safety and Authority of India (FSSAI)

Standards as per The Ministry of Health and Welfare, Food Safety and Authority of India -regulations for SAGO under Section 2.4.14:2 in Food Safety and Standards (Food product standards and Food Additives) regulation, 2011.
(The standards has been taken from prevention of food adulteration (PFA) rules 1955 Section. A 03.02 (Subs, by Noti. No. GSR 1211,dated 9.12.1958))

[SAGO shall mean small hard globules or pearls made from either the starch of the sago palm or the tubers of tapioca (manihot utilissima) and shall be free from any extraneous matter [including natural colours].[Ins, by Noti. No. GSR 74, dt 31-1-1965 in PFA rules 1955]

It shall conform to the following standards, namely-

(i) total ash (on dry basis) shall not be more than 0.4 percent;
(ii) ash insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid (on dry basis)

shall not exceed 0.1 per cent.

The Sagoserve, Salem

An Industrial Co-operative Society, running under Managing administration of State Government of Tamilnadu, Marketing their member-manufacturers products through daily closed tender system in Salem. Currently, The Sagoserve is doing following tests of each and every lot of ‘Sago’ before displaying in the daily tender, to check any adulteration in the commodity.



PH 4.5 to 7.0
Total Ash

Max 0.4 % by mass

Acid Insoluble Ash

Max 0.1 % by mass

HCN (hydro cyanic acid)

Max 5 ppm

Maize Nil

Max 600 ppm


Max 400 ppm


Specification and Criteria for grade designation for Tapioca Sago by The Ministry of Agriculture (Department of Agriculture and Co-operation) (See the Gazette of India, Part II, Section 3, Sub-Section (I) dated 22-09-2007) SCHEDULE – II (see rules 3 and 4)

Grade designation and quality of Tapioca Sago

1. Tapioca Sago shall be made from the starch obtained from the tubers of tapioca (Manihot esculenta crantz syn. Utilissima);

2. Minimum requirements:-

(i) Tapioca sago shall be –

(a) hard, clean, wholesome, globules or pearls of uniform colour, shape and size;
(b) having characteristic taste and flavour;
(c) free from insect infestations, live insect , dead insects, insect fragments,mould/mites, larvae, etc.
(d) free from fermented and musty odour;
(e) free from dirt, extraneous matter (including added colouring matter);
(f) free from bleaching, whitening agent or optical whiteners, sweetening agents or any other adulterant;
(g) free from any fungal or bacteria contamination.

(ii) Tapioca Sago shall comply with the residual level of Poisonous Metals (rule 57), crop contaminants (rule 57-A), naturally occurring toxic substances (rule 57-B), Insecticides and Pesticides residues (rule 65) and other food safety requirements as laid down under the provisions of Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules,1955

3.Criteria for grade designation:-

Special Characteristics

Special GRADE

Standard GRADE

General GRADE

Moisture Percent by Mass (Maximum)




Total Ash Percent by Mass on Dry Basis (Maximum)




Acid Insoluble Ash Percent by Mass on Dry Basis (Maximum)




Starch Percent By Mass on Dry Basis (Minimum)




Protein Percent By Mass on Dry Basis (Maximum)




Crude Fibre Percent By Mass on Dry Basis (Maximum)




pH of Aqueous Extract (Between)

4.5 to 7

4.5 to 7

4.5 to 7

Colour of gelatinised alkaline paste in the porcelain cuvetta on the lovibond scale not deeper than

0.2R +1.0Y

0.3R +1.0Y

0.4R + 1.5Y

Sulphur dioxide content in PPM. (Maximum)




HCN (Hydro cyanic acid) Test




 The Bureau of India Standards (BIS)

Standards set by The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in their list as (IS:899-1971) Indian Standard for Tapioca Sago (Saboodana) (Reaffirmed 2009)

Sl No.



Method of


CI of IS:4706-



Moisture, percent by weight, Max




Total ash ( dry basis ),percent by weight. Max




Acid insoluble ash ( dry basis ), percent by weight,Max




Starch ( on dry basis ),percent by weight, Min




Protein(NX6’25)(on dry basis), percent by weight,Max



Sulphur dioxide, ppm, Max




Crude fibre ( on dry basis ), percent by weight. Max




pH of aqueous extract

4.5 to 7.0



Colour of gelatinised alkaline paste in the porcelain cuvette on the Lovibond Scale,not deeper than


Ref to Appendix

B * Methods of test for edible starches.


The Standards set (Previously in prevention of food adulteration (PFA) rules 1955) and Currently updated in Food product standards and Food Additives regulation, 2011 (under Ministry of Health and Welfare, Food Safety and Authority of India) are the minimum standards for a commodity to declare safe for human consumption. Thus, The commodity ‘Tapioca Sago (Sabudana)’ shall conform minimum to the following standards:

1. Small hard globules or pearls purely made from Tapioca Root (Cassava i.e. Manihot Esculenta crantz syn Utilissima)
2. Shall be free from any extraneous matter
3. Total ash (on dry basis) shall not be more than 0.4 per cent;
4. Total ash insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid (on dry basis) shall not exceed 0.1 per cent; and
5. Total HCN (Hydro-cyanic acid) up-to 5 ppm (Internationally accepted codex standard is up-to-10 ppm for food items)

The Standards Set by BIS (under Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution), by AGMARK (under Ministry of Agriculture -Department of Agriculture and Co-operation) or by The Sagoserve, Salem may be on a higher side of minimum food safety standards to certify the commodity better than average quality.

About Cassava – Raw Material for Sabudana

About Raw Material – Tapioca Root (Cassava):

In the Encyclopedia Americana, the meaning of the word, “Cassava” is given as follows:

“CASSAVA, kas-sava (also called MANIOC, MANDIOC, YUCA, CASABI), South American shrubs of the genus Manihot, of the spurge family. Euphorbiaceae, widely cultivated in tropical America for their fleshy, starchy roots which form a large part of the food of the natives of northern South America; from the starch, tapioca is made. They have also been introduced into other warm countries specially Africa, and have quickly gained important positions as food crops. Two species are used for their starch content: M. utilissima (also known as M. esculenta) the bitter cassava and M. dulcis, variety Aipa, the sweet cassava. The former, although containing some very poisonous hydro-cyanic acid is much more widely used on account of its greater starch content, the poisonous part being removed during the processing of the starch. The starch content varies from 15 to over 30 percent in contrast to 12-20 percent for potatoes and about 60 percent for maize”

Scientific classification

Binomial name

Manihot esculenta Crantz

Kingdom: Plantae(unranked): Angiosperms(unranked): Eudicots

(unranked): Rosids

Order: Malpighiales

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Subfamily: Crotonoideae

Tribe: Manihoteae

Genus: Manihot

Species: M. esculenta

(Source: )

The cassava or manioc plant has its origin in South America. Its Botanical name is “Manihot Esculenta Crantz Syn. Utilissima”. Amazonian Indians used cassava instead of or in addition to rice/potato/maize. Portuguese explorers introduced cassava to Africa through their trade with the African coasts and nearby islands.

Tapioca Root was introduced in India during the later part of the 19th Century, Now, mainly grown in the States of Kerala, Andhra-Pradesh, & Tamilnadu. Products from Tapioca root like Starch & Sago introduced in India only in 1940s upwards. First by hand manually & later developed indigenous production methods.

Currently, The Tamilnadu State stands first in respect of processing of tapioca into starch & sago, in India. In India, Sago & Starch was produced first in Salem (Tamilnadu). About in 1943-44, Some 50 years ago, sago production started on a cottage scale basis in India by pulping the tapioca roots, filtering the milk-extract and after settling the milk, forming globules and roasting these globules.

Tapioca Root is the basic raw material for Sago and starch. There is about 30% to 35% starch contents generally in Indian tapioca root. India is one of the leading countries in tapioca production. About 650 to 700 units is engaged in tapioca processing in Salem district (Tamilnadu State). It is a very nutritious product as it contains Carbohydrates and appreciable amount of Calcium and Vitamin-C.

This is a well known crop that is recognized by several names in the various regions where it is consumed. It is known as yuca, rumu or manioca in Latin America, manioc in French-speaking Africa and Madagascar, cassava in English-speaking Africa, Ceylon and Thailand, mandioca or aipim in Brazil, tapioca in India and Malaysia, and bi ketella or kaspe in Indonesia (FAO, 1998). Sweet varieties of the crop such as Manihot utilissima Pohl are reported to have lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides, while bitter-tasting varieties exemplified by cultivars such as Manihot palmata Muell and Manihot aipr Pohl are thought to have higher levels of cyanogenic glycosides. These cultivars fall within the species Manihot esculenta Crantz which belongs to the family Euphorblaceae (Dixon, 1979; Lancaster et al., 1982; FAO 1998).

Tapioca root has a high resistance to plant disease and high tolerance to extreme stress conditions such as periods of drought and poor soils.
Fresh roots contain about 60 – 70% moisture, 7 – 12% protein, 5 – 13% starch (32 – 35% total carbohydrate) and trace amounts of fat (Lancaster et al., 1982; Jackson, 1990; FAO, 1998). The high starch and moisture content render it extremely perishable. (Hahn 1989; Mlingi et al., 1996). Processing is therefore indispensable to facilitate preservation, improve palatability and product quality as well as reduce cyanogenic glycoside toxicity (Jones, 1998).

(Source: )

Cassava .. constitute the most important sources of energy in the diet of tropical countries in the world. Cassava is rapidly emerging as a crop of considerable importance in India. Latin America has been reported as the place of origin, where the indigenous population for at least 4,000 years has grown it. After the discovery of America, Europeans soon recognized the advantages of the crop and took the crop to Africa as a potentially useful food crop, later to Asia also to be grown as a food security crop as for the extraction of starch (Howler, 2004).

Cassava was either introduced into Sri Lanka and India by the Portuguese during the 17th century, or it was directly introduced from South America to India in 1840 (Abraham 1956). Kerala and Tamilnadu account for about 80% of the total acreage of the crop in India. India possesses the highest national tuberous root yield in the world (27.6 t ha-1). It is cultivated in an area of 0.2 million ha producing 5.5 million t of tuberous roots. Cassava has the capacity to produce large amount of food calories per unit area, ability to adopt to erratic climatic conditions, resistance to locusts and several pests and diseases. Easy culture, low labour requirement, and cost of production are among some of its unique features that further encourage the spread of its culture to several regions of the country. Besides being important in human diet in Kerala, cassava provides cheap nutritious feed for livestock as well. Its tuberous roots have innumerable industrial uses also, particularly for starch extraction

(source: Recent Trends in Cassava Breeding in India – S G. Nair* and M. Unnikrishnan – Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, India. )

Different Varieties of Cassava (Tapioca Root)

In 1963, the Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI) of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was established for research on tropical tuber crops, with main emphasis on cassava. Achievements in cassava breeding and varietal dissemination in India have since been largely due to the contributions from CTCRI.

High-Yielding Varieties Extensive inter varietal hybridization between superior varieties, and selection among recombinant s resulted in the isolation and release of the first three high-yielding varieties of cassava from CTCRI in 1971.

They are H-97, H-165 and H-226 (Magoon et al., 1970). As the emphasis in breeding was on yield improvement, the culinary quality of those hybrids was not as good as that of the preferred local varieties; hence, they could not establish well as table varieties in Kerala. Nevertheless, they are the most preferred varieties in the neighbouring states. In 1977,two higher yielding hybrids with improved culinary quality were released as Sree Sahya and Sree Visakham (Jos et al., 1981).

H-97 is a hybrid between a local variety and a Brazilian selection. It has conical, short roots, yielding 25-35 t/ha, and has a crop duration of ten months.

H-165 is a hybrid between two local cultivars. The roots are relatively short and conical, yielding 33-38 t/ha. The variety is comparatively early maturing and can be harvested after 8-9 months.

H-226 is a hybrid between a local cultivar and the Malayan introduction, M4. The root yield is 30-35 t/ha, and crop duration is ten months. Both H-165 and H-226 are the predominant varieties cultivated in the states neighboring Kerala. H-226 has a high yield under irrigated cultivation in Tamilnadu.

Sree Visakham is a hybrid between a local cultivar and a Madagascar variety. It has compact roots, which have yellow flesh due to a high carotene content (466 IU/100 g).

Crop duration is ten months, and the root yield is 35-38 t/ha.

Sree Sahya is a multiple hybrid involving five parents, two of which are exotic and three indigenous. The roots are long-necked, yielding 35-40 t/ha. Crop duration is 10-11 months. Both Sree Visakham and Sree Sahya are improved table varieties, having better palatability than the former three hybrids.

Early Maturing Varieties

Over the last two decades the cultivation of cassava as a monocrop in the uplands started to decline in Kerala due to the cultivation of plantation crops which give higher income to the farmers. On the other hand, cassava is more and more being cultivated in low-lying areas after the main crop of rice, and for this short-duration varieties are needed.

The early maturing (7 months) selection, Sree Prakash, released in 1987 (Nair et al., 1988) was quickly adopted in paddy-based cropping systems in the low-lying areas. As cultivation of cassava in low-lying areas started to increase, better short-duration varieties 177 were needed. Sree Jaya and Sree Vijaya are two short-duration varieties which were released in 1988 for this purpose.

Sree Prakash is an indigenous selection. The plants are relatively short with high leaf retention. Its crop duration is 7-8 months and its root yield 35-40 t/ha.

Sree Jaya is a selection from indigenous germ plasm. The plants are medium in height, yielding conical roots with white flesh. Its crop duration is six months and root yield 26-30 t/ha.

Sree Vijaya is a selection from indigenous germ plasm. It has conical roots with yellow flesh and a root yield of 25-28 t/ha. Crop duration is six months.

The three short-duration varieties, having higher yield and excellent culinary quality, are much preferred by the farmers in Kerala, as they are ideally suited to cultivation in low-lying areas as a rotational crop after the paddy harvest.

As the industrial belts of Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh are continually in need of cassava roots, the short duration varieties are also becoming popular in those states.

Triploid Variety

As the role of cassava started changing from a human food item to an industrial raw material in the neighboring states, especially Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh, higher yield became the most important factor. As a result, the high-yielding hybrids like H-165 and H-226 quickly dominated the industrial belts of Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh.

The demand was for higher dry matter and starch contents. Among the artificially produced polyploids, triploids were found to combine higher yield and higher starch content.

Sree Harsha is the first triploid variety of cassava, released in 1996 (Sreekumari et al., 1999). It is a hybrid between a diploid selection and induced tetraploid of the released variety Sree Sahya. The plants are short, vigorous and non-branching or top-branching. The leaves are broad, thick and dark green in colour. Its roots are very compact, yielding 35-40 t/ha. Crop duration is ten months, but because of its early bulking nature it can be harvested as early as the 7th month without any yield loss or starch reduction in the roots. Sree Harsha has recorded the highest starch content of 39.1% among the released cassava varieties.

Triploids are produced by crossing diploids with colchicine-induced tetraploids.

Use of diploids as female parents was found to be more successful in the production of triploids while reciprocal crosses were unsuccessful. Certain parental combinations were found to be more fruitful in producing triploids.

Triploidy per se was found to be related to a number of desirable attributes in cassava, such as higher yield, higher harvest index, greater dry matter and starch contents in roots, rapid bulking, early harvest ability, shade tolerance and tolerance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD).

The triploid hybrid has made substantial advances in the breeding of cassava as it also combines high yield with excellent culinary quality, making it suitable as a dual purpose variety for both industrial and table purposes. Triploidy breeding in cassava 178 offers enhanced frequency of higher yielders in the progeny compared to other breeding methods, thus providing better opportunities for selection. Being vegetatively propagated but with a sexual reproduction system, cassava is a suitable plant for triploidy breeding.

Although induction of tetraploidy, interploidy crosses, seed set, germination and recovery of triploids are beset with several hindrances, triploid breeding is worth the effort. All practical aspects of triploidy breeding in cassava have been standardized at CTCRI.

Heterotic Varieties

Cassava, which is highly heterozygous and cross-pollinated, is also found to be a suitable plant for exploitation of heterosis. Inbred s were produced up to the 5th generation. Although considerable inbreeding depression was manifested in varying degrees for almost all the characters, certain genetic stocks tolerated inbreeding depression to a great extent. Studies show that root yield and most of the yield components in cassava are governed by dominant gene action, suggesting the scope for exploitation of heterosis in cassava improvement. Heterosis for root yield, in different varieties, was found to range from 10-100% over the better parent.

Two superior selections from top-cross hybrids of inbreds with the released variety Sree Visakham (TCH-1 and TCH-2) were found to have very palatable root quality, higher yield (42-44 t/ha), higher harvest index (69-71%) and lower cyanogen content (74-80 ppm). They have been tested in yield trials, on-farm trials and multi-location trials, and are now recommended for formal release (Easwari Amma et al., 2000)

(source: )

Sabudana Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Process of Sabudana (Tapioca Sago) in India:

  • Water Wash of Field Fresh Roots (To Remove Mud & Dust)

  • Peeling Machine / Manual Peeling (To Remove Skin of Roots)

  • Skin Peeled Root —> Inspection Belt (To Check Manually)

  • Towards Root Grater/Rasper with Fresh Water (For Crushing)

  • Extraction of Raw Starch Milk

  • Refining of Raw Starch

  • Milk & Fibers Separated through 3 or 4 Mesh Filter Separators

Separated Milk through Jet Refiner to Remove Excess Water, and

Separated Fibers through Pulp Press Machine to Remove Water.

  • Moisturised (about 45%) Lumps of Refined Milk to Sizer for Globule Shape of Required Size.

  • Sized Globules moving either to–>

(1) Hot Plates for Roasted Variety, or

(2) Steam Boiler for Boiled Variety

  • Both Variety drying under Sunlight/Mechanical Dryer to bring Moisture below 12% Minimum.

  • Pass through Separator Sieves for Uniform Size & to Remove Brokens & Powder.

  • ‘Tapioca Sago (Sabudana)’ is Ready for Market.

Sabudana Related HSCodes

Sabudana Related HSCodes

Harmonised System Codes:

Internationally, The Harmonised System classification Code for
‘Tapioca Root (Cassava)’ is 0714 1000 and
Products of Cassavais 1106 2020.

Section II Vegetable Products ->

Chapter: 07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers –>
Heading: 0714 of Manioc, Arrowroot, Salep, Jerusalem Artichokes, Sweet Potatoes and Similar Roots and Tubers with High Starch or Inulin Content, Fresh, Chilled, Frozen or Dried, Whether or Not Sliced or In The Form of Pellets; Sago pith –>
Clasification: 0714 1000 of Manioc (Cassava)

Chapter 11 Products of the Milling industry; Malt; Starches; Inulin; Wheat gluten>
Heading: 1106 Flour, Meal and Powder of the dried Leguminous Vegetables of Heading 0713, Of Sago or of Roots or Tubers of Heading 0714 or of the Products of’
Classification: 110620Of Sago or of roots or tubers of heading 0714′ Sub-Classification: 1106 2020Of manioc (cassava)

Why Indian Sabudana is the Best ?

Why Indian Sabudana is the Best ?

The Whole manufacturing of Sabudana in India is directly from the “extract of Cassava (Tubers)” only , not from dried flour or starch of cassava, as in many other countries. Thus, the quality of Sabudana ‘Made in India’ is much better.

In general, a final drying after gelatinisation in both the varieties of Sabudana is necessary in order to bring down the moisture content to the desired level of below between 11 to 12 percent. Normally, from 15.5 tons of moist extract, 10 tons of the dried product are obtained.

The brown skin, which contains chlorophyll and coagulated proteinous substances, adheres strongly to the ligneous tissues. While it is easy to remove this skin from the fresh roots, it is very difficult to remove it from the dried roots and, therefore, the starch of dried roots is always dark.

The nitrogenous substances are found in a colloidal state enveloping the starch granules in the pulp slurry of the fresh roots. It is easier to separate these nitrogenous particles in the pulp slurry of fresh roots than in dried roots.



The Tapioca Sago and Tapioca starch industry of Tamilnadu is the result of scarcity created by the impossibility of imports of foreign sago and starch from Singapore, Malaysia, Holland, Japan and U.S.A., during the Second World War. In the year 1943, Mr. Manickam Chettiar, a dry fish merchant of Salem had the occasions to go to Kerala very often in connection with the trade. He found tapioca flour to be a good substitute for the American corn flour. Shri Popatlal G. Shah, an evacuees from Penang (Malaysia) came in touch with Shri. Manickam and taught him the technical know-how to manufacture sago out of tapioca flour. Thus tapioca was used in 1943 to manufacture both starch and sago. But the methods adopted were crude and primitive.

In order to meet the daily increasing demand for sago and starch, Mr.Manickam with the help of a genius mechanic M. Venkatachalam Gounder improved the methods and machinery of production. The productive capacity of the industry increased from 2 bags of 100 kilo to 25 bags per day. In 1944 there was a severe famine in the country as a whole, and tapioca being edible, the collector of Salem prohibited the export of tapioca from Salem District.

The Salem sago and starch manufactures though very few in number formed an association and represented their case before the Civil Supply Commissioner and got the prohibitory order of the District Collector and also that of Madras Government for the export of sago and starch to other states cancelled. In 1945 production of sago and tapioca starch increased appreciably.

The sago and tapioca starch industry was born during the Second World War. But the aftermath of the war posed a severe threat to its existence. The Second World War was over and imports of starch and sago began to increase from foreign countries under general license No. XI.

Sago and starch manufacturers made the successful representation to Sri. C. Rajagopalachari, the civil Supplies and Industries Minister in the Interim Government and it resulted in the banning of imports of sago, which was extended up to 1949.

The Tariff Board also gave protection to sago industry from time to time up to 1957 in one way or other.

In 1957, misguided by some government officers and jealous persons, the Calcutta Corporation with the help of the Enforcement Branch seized about 8000 bags of sago from the traders in Calcutta under the bogey that Salem sago was not fit for human consumption. The action of Calcutta Corporation was terrific on the sago industry, and its price came down to Rs.20 per bag from Rs.65 within one month. Many manufacturers ceased the production and the agriculturists decided to switch over to the cultivation of other crops. This was the worst crisis faced by the industry since 1943.

The Sago manufacturers association faced the crisis boldly. They filed a case before the Supreme Court, against Calcutta Corporation. The sago manufacturer successfully established, by the analytical report that there was practically no difference between the good imported sago and the Indian product. They won the case. From that time Salem sago was also brought under Processed Food Act. Sago industry was thus saved.

In 1949, there were 45 units with about 7000 tonnes production of sago and starch. In 1957, there were 125 units producing about 23000 tonnes of sago and starch.

In 1993, there were about 852 units in India out of which 725 units are located in Tamilnadu. In Salem District alone there are 649 units constituting 89.5 percent. In 2008-09 there were about 359 sago industries located in Tamilnadu. In Salem District alone 120 units are located in Attur and Gangavalli area.

Tapioca waste like Thippi (remaining after starch and sago) is extensively used as cattle feed and the powder extracted from this residue known as Thippi flour or paste flour is used for various pasting purposes.

Sago and tapioca starch industry in Salem District and Tamilnadu has had a phenomenal growth in the last 47 years. Though it is a recent industry of Tamilnadu, its role particularly in Salem economy is very great indeed. It has already affected and has vastly increased the trade potential in addition to giving scope for employment opportunities for labour.

According to FAO classification, Root and tuber crops form staple diet for three percent of the global population. Cassava is mostly used for human consumption in the African continent and South America. Industrial utilization of cassava is prominent in Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and India in the form of starch, sago, dried chips, flour and the like.

अमृत बरस रहा (संकलित हिन्दी भजन )

अमृत बरस रहा

(संकलित हिन्दी भजन )

मन अमृत बेला जाग, अमृत बरस रहा ।

मन परभु चिन्तन में लाग, अमृत बरस रहा ।।

नीरस जीवन में रस भर ले, धरर्म धार भवसागर तर ले ।

आलस निद्रा त्याग, अमृत बरस रहा ॥ मन….

सत्य ज्ञान की ओढ चुनरिया, छोड कपट चल परेमनगरीया ।

धो कुसँग के दाग, अमृत बरस रहा ॥ मन…..

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तज मिथ्या अनुराग, अमृत बरस रहा ॥ मन….

बडे भाग्य यह नर तन पाया, सँत जनों ने यही बताया ।

रख ईसको बेदाग, अमृत बरस रहा ॥ मन…..